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The world we live in is filled with a lot of danger, some of these can be easily averted by taking heed to simple instructions and paying attention to basic laws of hygiene which we are aware of but neglect.

1.     Contagious Diseases.

These are also called infectious or communicable diseases, a subset of transmissible diseases. Dieases transmitted to other people either by contact with the sufferers of the disease or secretions/objects touched by the sufferers or by air.

These diseases are caused by microscopic germs that spread from person to person. They are diseases for which isolation or quarantine can help deter further spread.

Ways of spread:
1. Direct contact - physical contact, touching, caressing, kissing.
2. Air borne - sneezing, coughing etc.
3. Vomit - touching or using things an infected person used/touched.
4. s3xually transmitted.

Examples of contagious diseases
1. Viral - common cold, measles, H1N1 virus, chicken pox, cholera, lassa fever, ebola fever.
2. Bacteria - Group A streptococcus causing sore throat, tuberculosis.
3. Fungal - ring worm, tineacapitis, corporis.
4. Scabies.

Lassa Fever
A very contagious disease that is topical. It creates fear in the heart of people. It is known as viral haemorrhagic fever caused by the lassa virus.
> Symptoms - fever, weakness, headaches, vomiting, muscle pain, bleeding.
> Spread - contact with urine/faeces of infected multimammate rats, direct contact.
> Differentials - malaria, ebola, typhoid, yellow fever.
> Treatment - The use of certain antiviral drugs in the early phases of the disease can be lifesaving.

Prevention - everyone's business is prevention, which is always better than cure

> Improve sanitation.
> Reduce contact with rats, don't eat food already touched by rats.
> Stop spreading garri where rodents will have access to them.
> Store food in sealed containers.
> Do not do self-medications.
> Access medical care on time and give full information to them.
> Isolate infected persons.

2.     Venereal Diseases.

New nomenclature is s3xually Transmitted Infections. They are contagious diseases transmitted by some forms of s3xual contact. Causative agents could be viruses, bacteria or parasites.

Examples of STI
Herpes, Syphilis, Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, Gonorrhoea, HPV, Trachomoniasis.

Hepatitis is a group of viruses that affect the liver, they are named as hepatitis A to G. Hepatitis B infection is very common and highly infectious, that is, easily spread from one person to another. Unlike HIV and other viruses, common detergents do not easily destroy it. Once a family member is infected, it spreads among other members of the family.

Hepatitis B is spread through s3xual means, blood transfusion, sharing of sharp objects such as razor blade, tooth brush, ilarun; infected pregnant women can also transfer it to the baby during pregnancy, child birth and breast feeding period.

There is no known cure for it but it can be prevented by taking precautions such as immunizing new born, use of anti-viral during pregnancy  to prevent mother-to-child transmission, not sharing sharp objects.

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