Figures of speech are words or groups of words used to give particular emphasis to an idea.Figures of speech changes the literal sense of the word in use.It create images or mental pictures in the readers mind.Below are the various types of figures of speech with examples.
l. Simile: This is the figure of speech where a conscious and imaginative comparison is made between two things that are different in nature but have a common feature.It is a comparison of two things of a different nature or class by the use of the words as or like.
a. Chris is as gentle as a dove.
b. Mene is as wily as a fox.
c. Bode was like a lion on the field.
d. Mary is as beautiful as an angel.
2. Metaphor: This is a direct comparison of two things without the use of as or like, for the sake of emphasis. Instead of saying that one thing is like another thing, you say that thing is that thing.
a. Mary is a jewel.
b. Ike is a lion.
c. Yemi is a chameleon.
3. Personification: This is the art in which human qualities and attributes are given to abstract or inanimate objects.
a. The sun winked at me.
b. The weather is so gloomy.
c. The flowers are dancing in the wind.
d. The trees are waving at us.
e. Morning arrived early today.
4. Rhetorical questions: This is a question that is asked for its intended effect.It requires no answer, and already have a obvious answer.They have a question mark (?) after them.
a. Can anyone say he is not a sinner?
b. Why are we all wasting our time here?
c. Who is like unto thee, Oh Lord?
d. What on earth is sweeter than honey?
5. Hyperbole: This over statement or exaggeration of fact for the sake of emphasis or to create a humorous effect.
a. He was so thirsty that he drank all the water in the river.
b. Jenny responded with a thousand thanks.
6. Oxymoron: This is placing together two words or phrases of opposite significance for the sake of effect.
a. The matter has finally become an open secret.
b. It was a bitter sweet story.
7. Synecdoche: It is the figurative term used when a part is meant to represent a whole.
a. The poor woman has six hungry mouths to feed.
b. We have the best brains in our class.
8. Euphemism: This is a figurative device in which pleasant or mild terms are used to express an unpleasant incident.
a. The old man passed away last night (died).
b. He has not been lucky in his exams (failed).
9. Irony: This is a figure of speech in which one says the opposite of what one means.It is satiricial in nature.
a. He has done a perfect job (when he has done the work haphazardly).
b. The food was delicious (when it was acutually tasteless).
10. Epigram: This is a short witty saying expressing an idea in a clever and amusing way.
a. Attack is the best form of defense.
b. The more you look the less you see.
ll. Apostrophe: This is a speech or address directed to some people absent as if they were present.
a. Oh, Death thou art so wicked!
b. Africa, tell me Africa is this your back that is bent? (David Diop)
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